Even their household and family structures were different. Once the wealth of the central areas became apparent, Sevilla -based firms began to dominate the import-export trade—the exchange of American precious metals for European cloth, iron, manufactures, and other goods. Nevertheless, usage has fastened on Latin America, and it is retained here. Among some sedentary groups, large political structures—confederations or empires—had come into existence, collecting tribute and engaging in trade over long distances.
So much a part of the Atlantic world was the northeast of Brazil that Europe continued to make itself felt strongly. The religious orders were a partial exception, rotating their members frequently; nevertheless, the most famous figures spent the bulk of their lives in larger centres. The Peruvian thrust started first, in Tierra Firme the area of Panama and present northwestern Colombia in the years — The encomienda, the master institution of 16th-century Spanish America, was not employed. The Spanish occupation of the larger Caribbean islands did not entail spectacular episodes of military conflict. Among the semisedentary peoples, men mainly hunted, only clearing the fields for the women, who did the bulk of the agricultural work.
Marriage alliances and business deals soon brought the officials into connection with the more important encomenderos. Some of the new cultural goods were the result of Spanish action, like the encomienda or the ranchos; others were straight out of the indigenous world, including naboría, maíz corn; maize , canoa canoe , coa digging stick , and barbacoa grill, palisade, anything with pointed sticks, the origin of the English word barbecue. Most reforms came in a bundle in the late 18th century, the creation in of the Viceroyalty of New Granada based in Santa Fé Bogotá being an exception. Spanish America had long been defended by a patchwork of viceregal guards, port garrisons, half-fictional militias, and some forts and paid soldiers on frontiers with hostile Indians, but it had not had a formal military organization.
If some pressed on into the higher strata, others were reduced to positions traditionally belonging to Indians, such as permanent labourer. PublicationSeries ; schema: Like Cortés and like most leaders of successful expeditions, Pizarro became governor of the country he had conquered and actually held that position longer than Cortés. In the generation or two subsequent to the military phase of the conquest, Spanish immigrants poured by the thousands into Mexico and Peru.
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This brief history, divided into major periods, is contributed to in may cases by more than one scholar. Not only were the central areas different from the fringes in early Latin America, but important distinctions existed within the central areas themselves. Still another apparent disruptive force was the Spanish use of obligatory rotary labour of large groups for relatively long periods at great distances. In the conquest period and long after, Peru was far richer in precious metals than Mexico, since the Spaniards profited from the silver mining already developed by the Inca. Spaniards needed auxiliaries serving as intermediaries between themselves and the much larger indigenous population.
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